Perovskite Solar Panel Manufacturing Process in Different Locations

Have you come across Perovskite solar panels? These photovoltaic cells, named after the mineral perovskite, are becoming increasingly popular due to their cost-effectiveness and efficiency. Picture these panels gracing across countries, making our world brighter and greener. Wouldn’t it be a sight to behold?

However, there’s a catch!

As promising as the vision of populating the planet with these panels is, the monetary requirements for Perovskite production pose quite a challenge. For one, cost has an impact on the production aspect. Geography introduces additional complexity in a broader perspective.

With that in context, presented here is a research paper that intricately analyzes these challenges.

Scholars studied the design and cost of a 100 MW Perovskite solar panel manufacturing process in various locations in 2022. They also examined the lifecycle assessments of Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and their potential applications in different Photovoltaics (PVs). And the study had intriguing insights to read. Let us first explore the steps taken to reach these conclusions to understand the concepts better.

The 5 Steps in Undertaking this Study

Egypt, Spain, Poland, and Switzerland are the countries selected for evaluating the economic and energy aspects of Perovskite solar panel production. The researchers then proceeded with the following steps:

1. They developed a small-scale, automated pilot line for manufacturing Perovskite solar panels. The process involves either spray pyrolysis or slot-dye coating of active layers, with some stages conducted in a nitrogen atmosphere.

2. They then expanded and refined the process to meet the needs of a moderately-sized commercial production facility, which produced an active layer.

3. The researchers then employed a bottom-up modeling to analyze the material and production costs of the panels.

4. Next, they analyzed production and installation costs using a Monte Carlo simulation, addressing uncertainties in the assumptions made during calculations.

5. They assessed how selecting different materials for the electron transport layer (ETL) and counter electrode affected cost, production processes, and energy requirements.

These steps aid in approximating material and equipment expenses, considering the influence of several materials on production. Besides, it enables a comparison of costs between Perovskite solar panels and alternative PV technologies. The forthcoming section will articulate the findings derived from the research study.

Outcomes of the Research

Getting into the broader view, here are the research findings:

1. Perovskite PV production could be competitively viable in small scales, contingent on solar cell stability and effective scalability from lab-made perovskite efficiency to larger modules.

2. The production process is energy-efficient, utilizing only 5.6 kWh/m² compared to traditional modules like single-crystal silicon (600 kWh/m²) and multi crystalline silicon (420 kWh/m²) - Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It underscores their eco-friendly nature and energy-efficient manufacturing.

3. Utilizing a SnO2 electron transport layer (ETL) and a metal paste (Ag) counter-electrode offers streamlined processing, equivalent or reduced material costs, and decreased energy consumption compared to alternatives in this study.

4. In Poland, standalone perovskite panels have an EPBT (energy payback time) of up to 1.1years and 2.2 years for installed panels. In Egypt, standalone panels boast as low as 0.6 years, rising to 1.1 years for ground-mount installations. There is notable variability in embedded energy values in the study, introducing potential errors in EPBT calculations.

5. The Monte Carlo simulation forecasts an LCOE (Levelized Cost of Energy) range of 3 to 4¢/kWh in sunnier locations like Spain or Egypt.

6. PSCs can excel in photovoltaic markets, specifically building-integrated ,vehicle-integrated, or thin-film flexible PVs. Thanks to their thin active layers and lightweight materials.

Practical Ways to Apply the Inputs from this Research

1. R&D:

The findings open research avenues to enhance durability and efficiency of producing PSCs. Scientists, for instance, may explore better materials or refine manufacturing for improved stability and performance.

2. Commercialization:

In the future, leveraging extensive R&D resources, businesses can invest in the mass production of Perovskite solar panels. For instance, a firm could seamlessly incorporate Perovskite technology, anticipating it to emerge as a competitive and cost-effective option in their solar product lineup.

3. Policy and Investment:

Policymakers could utilize findings to create regulations and bring new sustainability norms. To illustrate, an investor might fund projects focusing on Perovskite solar panel manufacturing, anticipating economic and environmental benefits.

4. Industry Adoption:

Manufacturers could assess if integrating Perovskite panel production aligns with their goals. An electronics manufacturer might consider adding Perovskite solar panels as a new vertical, analyzing material costs and energy efficiency.

5. Environmental Significance:

Research enables comparing Perovskite tech with other solar options environmentally. This influences decisions by organizations or governments to endorse eco-friendly technologies. For instance, a city planning green practices might choose Perovskite panels for their lower environmental footprint, contrary to traditional solar panels.


To this end, the research enhances our knowledge of the economic, environmental, and commercial dimensions of Perovskite solar panel manufacturing. This understanding is crucial for the progress and acceptance of sustainable energy technologies. As these panels evolve for the better, let us reconsider their usage with other renewable resources.


Čulík,P., Brooks, K., Momblona, C., Adams, M., Kinge, S., Maréchal, F., ... & Nazeeruddin, M. K. (2022). Design and cost analysis of 100 MW Perovskite solar panel manufacturing process in different locations. ACS Energy Letters, 7(9), 3039-3044.